Islamic Shahada – The Only True Shahada

Islamic Shahada – The Only True Shahada

Exposing the abysmal ignorance and criminal mishandling of Islamic Shahada by a Christian Propagandist

Question Mark

To attack Islamic monotheism, the only extant monotheism in its’ purest form, Sam Shamoun objects that there is, ironically, the concept of the sin of “shirk” in it. According to this evangandist the Islamic Shahada has inadvertently deified Mohammad (peace be upon him) the last and final messenger on the face of earth.

However, we would soon realize that all the so – called proofs propounded by Shamoun has  back fired against him to establish even more strongly that Islamic Shahada is the Only True Shahada. We are also about to learn how ignorant Sam Shamoun is when it comes to comparative religions in academic circles.

In the refutation herein we would be responding to all the objections he had against the Islamic Shahada which he has documented here.

More than Just a “Single Verse”

Shamoun’s first objection was:

There is not a single verse which says that the testimony of faith is to confess or bear witness that Allah is god and that Muhammad is his messenger. Nor is there any example of a messenger exhorting people to testify that Allah is the only god and that he is his messenger.” (Italics and bold emphasize ours)

The well planned demand of a “single verse” should be glaring to any astute eye. It is because Shamoun knows that along with other cohorts that Islam is not confined to Qur’an only. Shamoun knows that if he would have taken entire canon of Islamic Scriptures into the realm of his demand then his trickery would have been exposed.

There is “not just a single” Hadith literature but numerous “which says that the testimony of faith is to confess or bear witness that Allah is God and that Muhammad (peace be upon him) is his messenger”.

In a Bukhari Hadith Allah’s (SWT) apostle (peace be upon him) has been reported to have directly and distinctly instructed people towards the testimony as the first fundamental pillar of Islam:

            Bukhari :: Book 1 :: Volume 2 :: Hadith 7

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

Allah’s Apostle said: Islam is based on (the following) five (principles):

1. To testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad is Allah’s Apostle.

2. To offer the (compulsory congregational) prayers dutifully and perfectly.

3. To pay Zakat (i.e. obligatory charity) .

4. To perform Hajj. (i.e. Pilgrimage to Mecca)

5. To observe fast during the month of Ramadan.

Yet another example:

            Muslim :: Book 1 : Hadith 20

It is narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah son of ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: (The superstructure of) al-Islam is raised on five (pillars), TESTIFYING (the fact) that there is no god but Allah, that Muhammad is His bondsman and messenger, and the establishment of prayer, payment of Zakat, Pilgrimage to the House (Ka’ba) and the fast of Ramadan.

If the above Hadiths is not one to settle case with tri-theists then we have several instances of conversion of non Muslims to Islam through the usage of the very testimony.

            Bukhari :: Book 4 :: Volume 56 :: Hadith 725

Narrated Abu Jamra:

Ibn ‘Abbas said to us, “Shall I tell you the story of Abu Dhar’s conversion to Islam?” We said, “Yes.” He said, “Abu Dhar said: I was a man from the tribe of Ghifar. We heard that a man had appeared in Mecca, claiming to be a Prophet. ! said to my brother, ‘Go to that man and talk to him and bring me his news.’ He set out, met him and returned. I asked him, ‘What is the news with you?’ He said, ‘By Allah, I saw a man enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil.’ I said to him, ‘You have not satisfied me with this little information.’ So, I took a waterskin and a stick and proceeded towards Mecca. Neither did I know him (i.e. the Prophet ), nor did I like to ask anyone about him. I Kept on drinking Zam zam water and staying in the Mosque. Then ‘Ali passed by me and said, ‘It seems you are a stranger?’ I said, ‘Yes.’ He proceeded to his house and I accompanied him. Neither did he ask me anything, nor did I tell him anything. Next morning I went to the Mosque to ask about the Prophet but no-one told me anything about him. Ali passed by me again and asked, ‘Hasn’t the man recognized his dwelling place yet’ I said, ‘No.’ He said, ‘Come along with me.’ He asked me, ‘What is your business? What has brought you to this town?’ I said to him, ‘If you keep my secret, I will tell you.’ He said, ‘I will do,’ I said to him, ‘We have heard that a person has appeared here, claiming to be a Prophet. I sent my brother to speak to him and when he returned, he did not bring a satisfactory report; so I thought of meeting him personally.’ ‘Ali said (to Abu Dhar), ‘You have reached your goal; I am going to him just now, so follow me, and wherever I enter, enter after me. If I should see someone who may cause you trouble, I will stand near a wall pretending to mend my shoes (as a warning), and you should go away then.’ ‘Ali proceeded and I accompanied him till he entered a place, and I entered with him to the Prophet to whom I said, ‘Present (the principles of) Islam to me.’ When he did, I embraced Islam ‘immediately. He said to me, ‘O Abu Dhar! Keep your conversion as a secret and return to your town; and when you hear of our victory, return to us. ‘ I said, ‘By H him Who has sent you with the Truth, I will announce my conversion to Islam publicly amongst them (i.e. the infidels),’ Abu Dhar went to the Mosque, where some people from Quraish were present, and said, ‘O folk of Quraish ! I testify that None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, and I (also) testify that Muhammad is Allah’s Slave and His Apostle.’ (Hearing that) the Quraishi men said, ‘Get at this Sabi (i.e. Muslim) !’ They got up and beat me nearly to death. Al ‘Abbas saw me and threw himself over me to protect me. He then faced them and said, ‘Woe to you! You want to kill a man from the tribe of Ghifar, although your trade and your communications are through the territory of Ghifar?’ They therefore left me. The next morning I returned (to the Mosque) and said the same as I have said on the previous day. They again said, ‘Get at this Sabi!’ I was treated in the same way as on the previous day, and again Al-Abbas found me and threw himself over me to protect me and told them the same as he had said the day before.’ So, that was the conversion of Abu Dhar (may Allah be Merciful to him) to Islam.”

Clearly Abu Dhar’s (May Allah (SWT) be pleased with him) reversion was brought forth through his testimony of the Islamic Shahada which in turn is a proof that non Muslims revert(ed) to Islam through the testimony of the Shahada.

Before proceeding with our other proofs we think that it is important to note here that, for us, testimony of the Islamic Shahada is more of heartily acceptance of the Shahada than its mere vocalization. Basically one needs to realize, accept etc that there is only one God – Allah (SWT) and that Mohammad (peace be upon him) is His messenger. For us, one who heartily and tacitly accepts the Shahada is as good a Muslim as anybody else who publicly phonates it.

Furthermore, we have another instance of the reversion of a Jew! Abdullah bin Salam, a former Jew and a knowledgeable person of the Jewish scriptures, reverted to Islam through the same testimony which Shamoun is making an issue of.

Bukhari :: Book 4 :: Volume 55 :: Hadith 546

Narrated Anas:

“…On that ‘Abdullah bin Salam said, “I TESTIFY that you are the Apostle of Allah.” ‘Abdullah bin Salam further said, “O Allah’s Apostle! The Jews are liars, and if they should come to know about my conversion to Islam before you ask them (about me), they would tell a lie about me.” The Jews came to Allah’s Apostle and ‘Abdullah went inside the house. Allah’s Apostle asked (the Jews), “What kind of man is ‘Abdullah bin Salam amongst you?” They replied, “He is the most learned person amongst us, and the best amongst us, and the son of the best amongst us.” Allah’s Apostle said, “What do you think if he embraces Islam (will you do as he does)?” The Jews said, “May Allah save him from it.” Then ‘Abdullah bin Salam came out in front of them saying, “I testify  that None has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah.” Thereupon they said, “He is the evilest among us, and the son of the evilest amongst us,” and continued talking badly of him.”

Abdallah bin Salam, a renowned Jew having sound knowledge of Jewish Scriptures approached Mohammad (peace be upon him) with three questions which according to him would be known by only a prophet. Once the prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) answered all his three queries he accepted Islam and chanted the Islamic Shahada. The details of this Jew reverting to Islam have been documented in the above quoted Hadith.

In his demand for a “single verse” from Qur’an supporting the Shahada Shamoun also fussed to demand any instance from the Qur’an where such a Shahada would have been proclaimed by any other prophet. To quote him, Shamoun wrote:

“There is not a single verse which says that the testimony of faith is to confess or bear witness that Allah is god and that Muhammad is his messenger. Nor is there any example of a messenger exhorting people to testify that Allah is the only god and that he is his messenger.

Once again Shamoun has been caught nabbing at the judicious demand of an example from the Qur’an (only). We have illustration in the Hadith canon which allude to Shamoun’s demand of any messenger exhorting people to testify that Allah is the only God and that he is His messenger.

               Muslim :: Book 1 : Hadith 383

Anas b. Malik said: The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: I would be the first intercessor in the Paradise and no apostle amongst the apostles has been TESTIFIED (by such a large number of people) as I have been TESTIFIED. And verily there woald be an apostle among the apostles who would be TESTIFIED to by only one man from his people.

It has to be noted that no prophet (peace be upon them) prior to Mohammad (peace be upon him) has been testified by such large number as he (peace be upon him) has been, this in turn proves that every prophet has been testified “as he has been testified” with the only difference that Mohammad (peace be upon him) has outnumbered every other prophet (peace be upon them).

Furthermore, in the same Hadith we learn that there was an apostle (peace be upon him) who was TESTIFIED by only man. The point of emphasize is that no matter whether there was one or many man testifying for that particular prophet (peace be upon him), however, earlier prophet(s) (peace be upon them) were also testified for their prophet hood.

Allah (SWT) alone is enough for Salvation

Shamoun next fabricated that the Islamic Shahada associates a “creature” with Allah in salvation:

“Second, it associates a creature with Allah in salvation. The Quran says that the only religion before Allah is Islam and that a person must therefore become a Muslim if s/he wants to be saved:…

However, as we mentioned earlier Sunni Islam teaches that a person cannot be a Muslim unless s/he testifies that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is his messenger. Thus, a person cannot be saved without confessing Muhammad which means that salvation comes from believing in Allah and a finite creature!”

Rather than a straight forward refutation, we would rather help Shamoun with other Islamic texts which would support his claim of the so called “association” with Allah (SWT) not just with Mohammad (peace be upon him) but with other creatures as well! After that it would be perspicuous how shallow is Shamoun’s grasp of Islam and comparative religions.

Allah (SWT) says in Qur’an:

“The Messenger believeth in what hath been revealed to him from his Lord, as do the men of faith. Each one (of them) believeth in Allah, His angels, His books, and His messengers. “We make no distinction (they say) between one and another of His messengers.” And they say: “We hear, and we obey: (We seek) Thy forgiveness, our Lord, and to Thee is the end of all journeys.” (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 2:285)

And Imam Muslim quotes in his Sahih:

“It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Ask me (about matters pertaining to religion), but they (the Companions of the Holy Prophet) were too much overawed out of profound respect for him to ask him (anything). In the meanwhile a man came there, and sat near his knees and said: Messenger of Allah, what al-lslam is? -to which he (the Holy Prophet) replied: You must not associate anything with Allah, and establish prayer, pay the poor-rate (Zakat) and observe (the fasts) of Ramadan. He said: You (have) told the truth. He (again) said: Messenger of Allah, what al-Iman (the faith) is? He (the Holy Prophet) said: That you affirm your faith  in Allah, His angels, His Books, His meeting, His Apostles, and that you believe in Resurrection and that you believe in Qadr (Divine Decree) in all its entirety, He (the inquirer) said: You (have) told the truth…” (Muslim :: Book 1 : Hadith 6)

As can be easily discerned it is a part of faith to “affirm” belief in Allah’s (SWT) Angels, His Books, His Apostles etc besides believing in Allah (SWT). If anybody who claims to be a Muslim and denies faith in even one of the above enlisted parts of faith then his faith is incomplete or in other words he is not Muslim and therefore, there would be no salvation for him.

With that being said and understood, if we were to concur with Shamoun that testifying Mohammad (peace be upon him) associates him with Allah (SWT) in salvation then according to the above cited Islamic texts Angels, Books etc are also associated with him in salvation! Either Islam has worst monotheism to offer or Shamoun’s argument is abase enough to expose his dabble and ignorance of Islam.  We will shortly get answer to this dilemma in this response.

Another point which requires paramount attention is the inclusion of “ApostleS”/ “messengerS” in the list quoted above. In other words, it is not just Mohammad (peace be upon him) who, for Shamoun, is associated with Allah (SWT) in salvation, however, all other apostleS, are also bestowed with this prerogative, including Jesus (peace be upon him)!:

“Narrated’Ubada: The Prophet said, “If anyone TESTIFIES that None has the right to be worshipped but Allah Alone Who has no partners, and that Muhammad is His Slave and His Apostle, and that Jesus is Allah’s Slave and His Apostle and His Word which He bestowed on Mary and a Spirit from Him, and that Paradise is true, and Hell is true, Allah will admit him into Paradise with the deeds which he had done even if those deeds were few.” (Junada, the sub-narrator said, ” ‘Ubada added, ‘Such a person can enter Paradise through any of its eight gates he likes.”) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 55, Number 644)”

Notice that according to the above adduced Hadith the testimony for both Mohammad (peace be upon him) and Jesus (peace be upon him) are the same, namely, Allah’s (SWT) slave and apostle, therefore, if according to Shamoun, Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) testimony associates him with Allah (SWT) in salvation then Jesus’ (peace be upon him) same testimony should also associate him in salvation with Allah (SWT)! In so many other words either Islam has scores of gods to offer or Shamoun is missing the trick in his haste and hate.

Based on the above arguments we think that Shamoun’s statement is incomplete when he wrote that,

            “Thus, a person cannot be saved without confessing Muhammad which means that salvation comes from believing in Allah and a finite creature!”

Since salvation comes from believing in Allah and a finite creature and many other finite creatures minus Mohammad (peace be upon him) and Books and Angels!

Perceivably, Shamoun’s argument is a mockery of polemics. It is because Shamoun does not realize the capacity in which Mohammad (peace be upon him) is “associated with Allah (SWT) in salvation”. Mohammad (peace be upon him) is not linked as a second god with Allah (SWT) in Islam.

Of course there would be no salvation without witnessing Mohammad (peace be upon him), however, the capacity of such a witness would not be that Mohammad (peace be upon him) is god but, specifically that he is Allah’s (SWT) slave and just another apostle. In fact, there would be no salvation with a denial of even one apostle of Allah (SWT).

More specifically, we have seen that the witness of Jesus (peace be upon him) is equally important as the witness of Mohammad (peace be upon him) in fact they are the same in the given Hadith, nevertheless, we would like to re state that the capacity of all such testimonials should be of a prophet, slave, messenger only – not of a second god in the godhead; it has to be unlike Christianity. It is because the truth of their being messengers/slaves/prophets of Allah (SWT) is equally strong as the truth of Allah (SWT) being the only deity worthy of worship.

To elucidate our point more clearly we would like to take Shamoun’s objection more closely. Specifically, Shamoun wrote:

“Thus, a person cannot be saved without confessing Muhammad which means that salvation comes from believing in Allah and a finite creature!”

The point where Shamoun goes awfully wrong is the capacity of Islamic confession of Mohammad (peace be upon him). We confess Mohammad (peace be upon him) as a messenger of Allah (SWT) similarly as we confess the messenger ship of Moses, Jesus etc, peace be upon them. We would like to thank Shamoun for providing us the Hadith which we would use against him:

“Narrated’Ubada: The Prophet said, “If anyone TESTIFIES that None has the right to be worshipped but Allah Alone Who has no partners, and that Muhammad is His Slave and His Apostle, and that Jesus is Allah’s Slave and His Apostle and His Word which He bestowed on Mary and a Spirit from Him, and that Paradise is true, and Hell is true, Allah will admit him into Paradise with the deeds which he had done even if those deeds were few.” (Junada, the sub-narrator said, ” ‘Ubada added, ‘Such a person can enter Paradise through any of its eight gates he likes.”) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 55, Number 644)”

Yet again Shamoun exposes his ignorance of Islamic concepts when he fusses about believingin Allah (SWT) and a “finite creature”. He just does not understand (or does not want to understand) the capacity in which we believe in Mohammad (peace be upon him). To teach Shamoun, we believe Mohammad (peace be upon him) to be a prophet, messenger, bondsman etc. But because evangadism die hard, we would like to state that apart from believing in the “finite creature” we believe in many other finite creatures, for instance Jesus (peace be upon him), Moses (peace be upon him), Mary (May Allah (SWT) be pleased with her):

 “The Messenger believeth in what hath been revealed to him from his Lord, as do the men of faith. Each one (of them) believeth in Allah, His angels, His books, and His messengers. “We make no distinction (they say) between one and another of His messengers.” And they say: “We hear, and we obey: (We seek) Thy forgiveness, our Lord, and to Thee is the end of all journeys.” (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 2:285. Bold and italics emphasize ours)

In his arrogance Shamoun made an the most abominable, ill supported and awfully false statement:

“This is what Muslims have done in their shahadah, namely they have turned Muhammad into an associate/companion/sharer/partner with Allah.”

IN RESPONSE WE WOULD LIKE TO CHALLENGE SHAMOUN TO BE MAN ENOUGH TO PROVE THAT MOHAMMAD (PEACE BE UPON HIM) BEEN ASSOCIATED, PARTNERED ETC WITH ALLAH (SWT) OR THE WORLD WILL ONCE AGAIN WITNESS THAT SHAMOUN HAS GOT NO AUTHORITATIVE PROOF BEHIND HIS HOLLOW CLAIMS.

 

Scholars Say

In order to prove his point, Shamoun quoted a few scholars. There is absolutely no problem with the statements of most of the scholars. Quotations of a few scholars which Shamoun misused and cowardly edited would be analyzed herein.

Firstly, in the quotations of Qatada, Abu Sa’id al-Khudri, Ibn ‘Ata and Jafar ibn Muhammad as-Sadiq – there is absolutely no problem. It is because the mention of the name of Mohammad (peace be upon him) with Allah (SWT) does not tantamount to one deity’s name with other. Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) name is clearly and distinctly mentioned as messenger in the Shahada alongside Allah’s (SWT) name.

Secondly, after quoting the four scholars, namely,

“Qatada said, “Allah exalted his fame in this world and the Next. There is no speaker, witness nor anyone doing the prayer who fails to say, ‘There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.’”

Abu Sa’id al-Khudri related that the Prophet said, “Jibril came to me and said, ‘My Lord and your Lord says, “Do you know how I have exalted your fame?”’ I said, ‘Allah and His Messenger know best.’ He said, ‘When I am mentioned you are mentioned with Me.’”

Ibn ‘Ata quoted a hadith qudsi saying, “I completed belief with your being mentioned with Me.” And another one which says, “I have made your mention part of My mention so whoever mentions Me, mentions you.”

Ja’far ibn Muhammad as-Sadiq, “No one mentions you as the Messenger but that he mentions Me as the Lord.”

Qadi ‘Iyad Ibn Musa al – Yahsubi writes that “Some of the people of knowledge, such as al-Mawardi, suggested that the Station of Intercession was being reffered to by this.” Nevertheless, it is a question to be asked as to why Shamoun edited it.

Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) position/station of intercession can in no sense be made or thought to be equivalent to the mention of Allah’s (SWT) name. In fact, the intercession capacity of Mohammad (peace be upon him) backfires against Shamoun to establish the menial nature of Mohammad (peace be upon him) to Allah (SWT).

Next we would analyze

“The fact that mention of the Prophet is directly connected to mention of Allah also shows that obedience to the Prophet is connected to obedience to Allah and his name to Allah’s name. Allah says, “Obey Allah and His Messenger” (2:32) and “Believe in Allah and His Messenger.” (4:136) Allah joins them together using the conjunction wa WHICH IS THE CONJUNCTION OF PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT PERMITTED TO USE THIS CONJUNCTION IN CONNECTION WITH ALLAH IN THE CASE OF ANYONE EXCEPT THE PROPHET.”

It is not very hard to fathom what Shamoun is trying to stress by bolding his words. We do not know the context, situation and the thought process in which Qadi Iyad Ibn Musa al-Yahsubi wrote the above passage, however, we would like to respectfully disagree with him for the following reasons:

  1. If believing in Allah (SWT) AND (“using the conjunction wa”) His Messenger (peace be upon him) would have been equivalent to the capacity of association/partnership and subsequent sin of “shirk” then either al-Yahsubi missed out on Qur’an 2:285 where Allah (SWT) recommends to believe in Him besides believing in several other entities,

“The Messenger believeth in what hath been revealed to him from his Lord, as do the men of faith. Each one (of them) believeth in Allah, His angels, His books, AND His messengers. “We make no distinction (they say) between one and another of His messengers.” And they say: “We hear, and we obey: (We seek) Thy forgiveness, our Lord, and to Thee is the end of all journeys.” (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 2:285, bold, capital and italics emphasize ours)

  1. Or there is serious and fundamental error in al-Yahsubi’s statement, namely, “IT IS NOT PERMITTED TO USE THIS CONJUNCTION IN CONNECTION WITH ALLAH IN THE CASE OF ANYONE EXCEPT THE PROPHET.” It is because according to Qur’an 2:285, Allah (SWT) recommends Muslims to believe in Him AND (“wa”) His other messengers.

 

  1. Another observable flaw in al-Yahsubi’s statement is that whether it be Mohammad (peace be upon him) or any other entity, let alone a prophet, one just cannot conjoin anybody or anything with Allah (SWT) ‘at least in Islam’.

Similarly, chances of attacking Islam through obeying Allah (SWT) and His messenger (peace be upon him) going is absolutely bleak for Shamoun because as

Shamoun’s attack through obedience to Allah (SWT) and Mohammad (peace be upon him) is bleaker to the point of backfiring against him because there are instances in Qur’an where Muslims down the ages have been recommended to obey their respective prophets (peace be upon them all).

“‘(I have come to you), to attest the Law which was before me. And to make lawful to you part of what was (Before) forbidden to you; I have come to you with a Sign from your Lord. So fear Allah, AND OBEY ME (Jesus, peace be upon him).” (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 5:50. Bold, Italics and Capital emphasize ours)

And,

 When Jesus came with Clear Signs, he said: “Now have I come to you with Wisdom, and in order to make clear to you some of the (points) on which ye dispute: therefore fear Allah AND OBEY ME (Jesus, peace be upon him), (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 43:63. Bold, Italics and Capital emphasize ours)

Communities even suffered perditions for not “obeying” their messengers:

“Such were the ‘Ad People: they rejected the Signs of their Lord and Cherisher; disobeyed His messengers; And followed the command of every powerful, obstinate transgressor.”, (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 11:59. Bold, emphasize ours)

Israelite messenger Aaron (peace be upon him) instructed his people to follow and obey him:

“Aaron had already, before this said to them: “O my people! ye are being tested in this: for verily your Lord is (Allah) Most Gracious; so follow me and OBEY my command.”, (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 20:10. Bold, Italics and Capital emphasize ours)

Even one of the greatest prophets, namely, Noah (peace be upon him) instructed that he be “obeyed”:

“That ye should worship Allah, fear Him and OBEY ME:” (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 20:10. Bold, Italics and Capital emphasize ours, 71:3. Bold, Italics and Capital emphasize ours)

The backfire against this evangandist does not seize here. To expose Shamoun’s nescience Allah (SWT) unequivocally enjoins in the Qur’an that not just Mohammad (peace be upon him) but every messenger (peace be upon them all) was sent but to be obeyed

We sent not a messenger, but to be obeyed, in accordance with the will of Allah. If they had only, when they were unjust to themselves, come unto thee and asked Allah’s forgiveness, and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah indeed Oft-returning, Most Merciful., (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 5:64. Bold, Italics and Capital emphasize ours, 71:3. Bold, Italics and Capital emphasize ours.)

To make matters worse for Shamoun; not merely are the messengers (peace be upon them) enjoined to be obeyed, nevertheless, people of knowledge or authority are also to be obeyed:

“O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, AND those charged with authority among you.”, (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 5:64. Bold, Italics and Capital emphasize ours, 5:45. Bold, and Capital emphasize ours.)

No wonder after reading the above adduced noble verse Shamoun should reconsider to elongate the roster of deified entities in the Islamic Shahada or he should take some classes to neutrally comprehend Tawheed – A concept not to be found in his current creed.

Shamoun quoted a few other scholars. Let us give Shamoun fair chance by analyzing his further so called scholarly proofs. He quoted Hudhayfa:

“Hudhayfa said that the Prophet said, “None of you should say, ‘What Allah wills and (wa) so-and-so wills.’ Rather say, ‘What Allah wills.’ Then stop and say, ‘So-and-so wills.’”

Rather than doing any good to Shamoun the above quotation blows back against him. It is because there is no Islamic Scripture, not even implied in the Shahada, which says Allah’s (SWT) and (wa) Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) will.

As a matter of fact Mohammad (peace be upon him), according to Shamoun (the evangandist again helped me against him) has been reported to have rebuked for any such usage of “wa” which would otherwise allude to association/partnership or, in other words, the sin of “shirk”:

“Something similar is mentioned in another hadith. Someone was speaking in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, “Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger has been rightly guided, and whoever rebels against them both (joining them together by using the dual form) …” The Prophet said to him, “What a bad speaker you are! Get up! [Or he said: Get out!]” (Source)

Furthermore, Abu Sulayman’s quotation (which was again helped to us by Shamoun) debunks Shamoun’s weak argument of the usage of “wa” (and) in the Shahada. According to Abu Sulayman’s report Mohammad (peace be upon him) disliked his name being associated with Allah’s (SWT) name in an specific way which would imply equality:

“Abu Sulayman said, “He disliked the two names being joined together in that way BECAUSE IT IMPLIES EQUALITY.” (Source)

However, what is noticeable is that Mohammad (peace be upon him) never objected to the fact that his name was associated to Allah’s (SWT) as His messenger/slave or prophet.

In midst of all of these the fundamental error committed by Shamoun is that he does not pay respect to the capacity in which Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) or any other entities name has been associated/partnered with Allah’s (SWT) name.

Tawheed and Islamic Shahada would still be unblemished if Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) name (or any other prophet’s (peace be upon them) name for that matter) is associated/partnered with Allah’s (SWT) name as His messenger/slave or prophet.

 

The Coward Evangandist

Shamoun was “shocked” that Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) name is placed on the doors of the heavenly garden. He objected:

“What is even more shocking is that not only did Allah join Muhammad’s name together with his by the use of the conjunction wa he also placed his name on the very door of the heavenly garden itself!

Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Written on the door of the Garden is: I am Allah. There is no god but Me. Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. I will not punish anyone who says that.” (Ibid., Chapter Three: On the sound and well-known traditions related about the immense value placed on him by his Lord, his exalted position and his nobility in this world and the next, Section 1. What has come concerning his place with his Lord, the Mighty and Majestic, his being chosen, his high renown, his being preferred, his mastery over the children of Adam, the prerogative of the ranks he was given in this world and the blessing of his excellent name, p. 90; underline emphasis ours)”

Indeed there is something seriously shocking for Shamoun and for readers as well. There are more than just a couple of shockers with Shamoun’s aforementioned argument.

Firstly, if we agree that Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) name is written on the doors of heaven, however, yet it cannot and does not prove that Mohammad (peace be upon him) is co-equal with Allah (SWT). In fact, on the other hand, it does prove the opposite, that is, Mohammad (peace be upon him) is not co-equal with Allah (SWT). Since Ibn Abbas’ (RAA) comments clearly states that He is Allah and there is no god (including Mohammad (peace be upon him) besides Him. Immediately after expunging any tinge of “shirk” Ibn Abbas rightly exposited the true status of Mohammad (peace be upon him); that of a messenger of Allah (SWT):

“Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Written on the door of the Garden is: I am Allah. There is no god but Me. Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. I will not punish anyone who says that.”

It certainly would have been shocking if it would have been written on the doors that Allah (SWT) is God and Mohammad (peace be upon him) is God. (God forbid). However, that is not the case here and it can never be.

Secondly, and more importantly, Shamoun very meticulously provided the source of Ibn Abbas’ quotation; nevertheless, he was more meticulous and even more coward in editing and hiding the footnote which accompanied Ibn Abbas’ quotation. For it clearly says in footnote number two (2):

“It is NOT KNOWN who related it from him.” (Muhammad Messenger Of Allah, Ash-Shifa of Qadi ‘Iyad, Madinah Press Granada, Spain, ISBN 1874216262, p.90. Capital emphasize ours)

Nevertheless, we give Shamoun an opportunity to provide complete sanad of the above Ibn Abbas quotation once he has dealt with our first response of the two.

We also would like to enquire Shamoun as to why did he shy away from footnote number 2 which accompanied Ibn Abbas’ quotation? We expect Shamoun to be man enough to respond to this as well.

 

No discrimination between His (SWT) Prophets (peace be upon them)

Shamoun’s so called “third” objection was that there is a negative discrimination between Mohammad (peace be upon him) and rest of the prophets:

            “Third, it makes a distinction between the prophets and messengers…”

Based on the above reasoning(s) so far-we have seen that Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) testimonial is of messenger/prophet or slave. We have plethora verses in Qur’an which expressly proclaim that there is no difference between Mohammad (peace be upon him) and any other messenger/prophet (peace be upon them). For instance,

“These are the Signs of Allah: we rehearse them to thee in truth: verily THOU ART ONE OF THE MESSENGERS.”, (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 2:252. Bold and Capital emphasize ours, 5:45. Bold, and Capital emphasize ours.)

“Mankind was one single nation, and Allah sent MESSENGERS with glad tidings and warnings; and with them He sent the Book in truth, to judge between people in matters wherein they differed;…, (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 2:213. Bold and Capital emphasize ours, 5:45. Bold, and Capital emphasize ours.)

Muhammad is no more than a messenger: MANY WERE THE MESSENGER THAT PASSED AWAY BEFORE HIM. If he died or were slain, will ye then Turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve Him) with gratitude.”, (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 2:213. Bold and Capital emphasize ours, 5:144. Bold, Italics and Capital emphasize ours. )

Allah (SWT) expressly states that Mohammad (peace be upon him) is in line with other great messengers (peace be upon them):

“We have sent thee inspiration, AS WE SENT IT TO Noah and the Messengers after him: we sent inspiration to Abraham, Isma’il, Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes, to Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and solomon, and to David We gave the Psalms.” (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 5:163 Bold, Capital and Italics emphasize ours)

Allah (SWT) re-iterates in His (SWT) noble verses that Mohammad (peace be upon him) is just another messenger sent like many others (peace be upon them) were sent before him (peace be upon him).

Before thee We sent (messengers) to many nations, and We afflicted the nations with suffering and adversity, that they might learn humility. (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 6:42. Italics emphasize ours)

It is not just the messenger ship of Mohammad (peace be upon him), but his prophet hood is also undiscriminating. Allah (SWT) proclaims about the prophet hood of Mohammad (peace be upon him):

O Prophet! Truly We have sent thee as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and Warner,- (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 33:45. Italics emphasize ours)

Similarly Allah (SWT) also testifies about the prophet hood of numerous other prophets, namely, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Aaron, Idris etc (peace be upon them):

“(Also mention in the Book (the story of) Abraham: He was a man of Truth, a prophet. (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 19:41. Italics and bold emphasize ours)

“When he had turned away from them and from those whom they worshipped besides Allah, We bestowed on him Isaac and Jacob, and each one of them We made a prophet.” (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 19:49. Italics and Bold emphasize ours)

“And, out of Our Mercy, We gave him his brother Aaron, (also) a prophet. (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 19:53. Italics and Bold emphasize ours 19:53)

“Also mention in the Book the case of Idris: He was a man of truth (and sincerity), (and) a prophet: (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 19:56. Italics and Bold emphasize ours)

To silence Shamoun Qur’an also testifies about the messenger ship and prophet hood of personalities such as Moses and Isma’ il (peace be upon them) similar to the messenger ship and prophet hood of Mohammad (peace be upon him)

“Also mention in the Book (the story of) Moses: for he was specially chosen, and he was a messenger (and) a prophet. (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 19:51. Italics and Bold emphasize ours.)

“Also mention in the Book (the story of) Isma’il: He was (strictly) true to what he promised, and he was a messenger (and) a prophet. (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 19:54. Italics and Bold emphasize ours.)

Interestingly for Shamoun and other evangandists we found more similarity between Mohammad (peace be upon him) and their man-god Jesus (peace be upon him) than with anybody else.

Allah (SWT) declares about Mohammad (SWT) that he was no more than His messenger like many other messengers (peace be upon them) who passed away before him:

Muhammad is no more than a messenger: many Were the messenger that passed away before him. If he died or were slain, will ye then Turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve Him) with gratitude.” (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 5:144. Italics and Bold emphasize ours.)

Comparatively, Allah (SWT) announces verbatim status of Jesus (peace be upon him):

Christ the son of Mary was no more than a messenger; many were the messengers that passed away before him. His mother was a woman of truth. They had both to eat their (daily) food. See how Allah doth make His signs clear to them; yet see in what ways they are deluded away from the truth!”, (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 6:75. Italics and Bold emphasize ours.)

Besides there are other similarities that of the messenger ship and prophet hood:

“Those messengers We endowed with gifts, some above others: To one of them Allah spoke; others He raised to degrees (of honour); to Jesus the son of Mary We gave clear (Signs), and strengthened him with the holy spirit., (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 2:253. Bold emphasize ours.)”

“And (appoint him) a messenger to the Children of Israel, (with this message): “‘I have come to you, with a Sign from your Lord,…, (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 5:49. Bold emphasize ours.)

“O People of the Book! Commit no excesses in your religion: Nor say of Allah aught but the truth. Christ Jesus the son of Mary was (no more than) a messenger of Allah, and His Word, which He bestowed on Mary, and a spirit proceeding from Him: so believe in Allah and His messengers…”(Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 5:171. Bold emphasize ours.)

“He said: “I am indeed a servant of Allah: He hath given me revelation and made me a prophet; (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 19:30. Bold emphasize ours.)

 

Shamoun jaundiced in his jealousy and hatred assumes that the Shahada discriminates between Mohammad (peace be upon him) and his man-god Jesus (peace be upon him). He complains:

“In order to see just how discriminating this testimony is to the other prophets and messengers of Allah it should be kept in mind that a person embracing Islam isn’t required to confess that Jesus is Allah’s Slave, Messenger, and Word which he bestowed on Mary, as well as being a Spirit from him, even though the so-called sound ahadith emphatically teach that this is a necessary component of one’s confession!

Narrated ‘Ubada:
The Prophet said, “If anyone TESTIFIES that None has the right to be worshipped but Allah Alone Who has no partners, and that Muhammad is His Slave and His Apostle, and that Jesus is Allah’s Slave and His Apostle and His Word which He bestowed on Mary and a Spirit from Him, and that Paradise is true, and Hell is true, Allah will admit him into Paradise with the deeds which he had done even if those deeds were few.” (Junada, the sub-narrator said, ” ‘Ubada added, ‘Such a person can enter Paradise through any of its eight gates he likes.”) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 55, Number 644)

At the very outset let us re remind that, as instructed in the Qur’an, Muslims make no distinction between messengers of Allah (SWT), peace be upon them:

“Say ye: “We believe in Allah, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, Isma’il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given to (all) prophets from their Lord: We make no difference between one and another of them: And we bow to Allah (in Islam).”, (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 2:136. Bold and Italics emphasize ours.)

If Muslims make no distinction between different messengers of then Shamoun needs to understand that no Muslim is a Muslim without testifying that Jesus (peace be upon him) is Allah’s (SWT) Slave, Apostle and His Word. Similarly messenger ship of Abraham, Isma’il, Isaac etc (peace be upon them) has to be testified for being a Muslim:

“The Messenger believeth in what hath been revealed to him from his Lord, as do the men of faith. Each one (of them) believeth in Allah, His angels, His books, and His messengers….”, (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 2:285. Bold and Italics emphasize ours.)

However, if Shamoun bases his complain (upon the Bukhari Hadith) on the fact that we do not testify specifically about Jesus (peace be upon him) in our Shahada then he should realize we do not discriminately filter Jesus (peace be upon him) out of the Shahada; we do not testify about the truth of paradise and hell, as well, which is very much present in Shamoun’s cited Bukhari Hadith.

Therefore, the sense of Hadith is totally different from the goal which Shamoun is trying to achieve. In fact at other place Brother Zawadi explained the sense of the above adduced Hadith.

“The hadith regarding the Shahadah that includes Jesus’ name in it has a reason for it. 

Qurtubi said that the point of this hadith is to show the Christian how they went astray regarding their portrayal and belief regarding Jesus and his mother. And that a Christian can benefit from this saying if he said it in his testimony if he converted to Islam. 

Nawawi said that this hadith is great in the sense that it talks about doctrine which is so abused by other religions. For example, the Jews did not believe in Jesus and they insulted his mother. This hadith shows honor to Jesus and his mother.” (Source, Un bolded and font color changed by us)

For more detailed exegesis on the above cited Bukhari Hadith please visit this page

Furthermore, we have instances of conversion during the life time of the prophet (peace be upon him) where people testified the Islamic Shahada and did not include Jesus’ (peace be upon him) prophet hood in it, moreover, the prophet did not object to it.

We have Abu Dhar’s conversion, for instance:

            “Bukhari :: Book 4 :: Volume 56 :: Hadith 725

Narrated Abu Jamra:

Ibn ‘Abbas said to us, “Shall I tell you the story of Abu Dhar’s conversion to Islam?” We said, “Yes.” He said, “Abu Dhar said: I was a man from the tribe of Ghifar. We heard that a man had appeared in Mecca, claiming to be a Prophet. ! said to my brother, ‘Go to that man and talk to him and bring me his news.’ He set out, met him and returned. I asked him, ‘What is the news with you?’ He said, ‘By Allah, I saw a man enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil.’ I said to him, ‘You have not satisfied me with this little information.’ So, I took a waterskin and a stick and proceeded towards Mecca. Neither did I know him (i.e. the Prophet ), nor did I like to ask anyone about him. I Kept on drinking Zam zam water and staying in the Mosque. Then ‘Ali passed by me and said, ‘It seems you are a stranger?’ I said, ‘Yes.’ He proceeded to his house and I accompanied him. Neither did he ask me anything, nor did I tell him anything. Next morning I went to the Mosque to ask about the Prophet but no-one told me anything about him. Ali passed by me again and asked, ‘Hasn’t the man recognized his dwelling place yet’ I said, ‘No.’ He said, ‘Come along with me.’ He asked me, ‘What is your business? What has brought you to this town?’ I said to him, ‘If you keep my secret, I will tell you.’ He said, ‘I will do,’ I said to him, ‘We have heard that a person has appeared here, claiming to be a Prophet. I sent my brother to speak to him and when he returned, he did not bring a satisfactory report; so I thought of meeting him personally.’ ‘Ali said (to Abu Dhar), ‘You have reached your goal; I am going to him just now, so follow me, and wherever I enter, enter after me. If I should see someone who may cause you trouble, I will stand near a wall pretending to mend my shoes (as a warning), and you should go away then.’ ‘Ali proceeded and I accompanied him till he entered a place, and I entered with him to the Prophet to whom I said, ‘Present (the principles of) Islam to me.’ When he did, I embraced Islam ‘immediately. He said to me, ‘O Abu Dhar! Keep your conversion as a secret and return to your town; and when you hear of our victory, return to us. ‘ I said, ‘By H him Who has sent you with the Truth, I will announce my conversion to Islam publicly amongst them (i.e. the infidels),’ Abu Dhar went to the Mosque, where some people from Quraish were present, and said, ‘O folk of Quraish ! I testify that None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, and I (also) testify that Muhammad is Allah’s Slave and His Apostle.’ (Hearing that) the Quraishi men said, ‘Get at this Sabi (i.e. Muslim) !’ They got up and beat me nearly to death. Al ‘Abbas saw me and threw himself over me to protect me. He then faced them and said, ‘Woe to you! You want to kill a man from the tribe of Ghifar, although your trade and your communications are through the territory of Ghifar?’ They therefore left me. The next morning I returned (to the Mosque) and said the same as I have said on the previous day. They again said, ‘Get at this Sabi!’ I was treated in the same way as on the previous day, and again Al-Abbas found me and threw himself over me to protect me and told them the same as he had said the day before.’ So, that was the conversion of Abu Dhar (may Allah be Merciful to him) to Islam.”

Abu Dhar’s parents also testified and even they did not include the prophet hood of Jesus (peace be upon him) in it! Rather they only and specifically testified about the prophet hood of Mohammad only.

Muslim :: Book 31 : Hadith 6046

…I came to Unais and he said: What have you done? I said: I have done that I have embraced Islam and I have testified (to the prophethood of Allah’s Messenger). He said: I have no aversion for your religion and I also embrace Islam and testify (to the prophethood of Muhammad). Then both of us came to our mother and she said: I have no aversion for your religion and I also embrace Islam and testify to the prophethood of Muhammad….”

Either Abu Dhar (RAA), and his parents (RAA), one of Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) pride companions, were extraordinarily and for some unknown reason targeted Jesus (peace be upon him) to filter him out of the Shahada OR there is something fishy in Shamoun’s reasoning.

When the Sahabas testified about Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) prophet hood only they indirectly testified about the prophet hood of all other prophets, including Jesus (peace be upon him). If there would have been any sort of incompleteness in their (RAA) Shahada then the prophet (peace be upon him) would have definitely objected to complete it, however, he (peace be upon him) did not do so. Nevertheless, he (peace be upon him) brought up Jesus’ (peace be upon him) prophet hood at a totally different place under totally different circumstance this further opens up paths and bolsters Imam Qurtubi’s and Nawawi’s explanation of the especial scenario under which/for which the prophet (peace be upon him) gave that invaluable Hadith about Jesus’ (peace be upon him) prophet hood.

There are numerous other examples of conversions of non-Muslims reverting to Islam. We have an instance of a Jew converting to Islam.  

            “Narrated Anas:

When `Abdullah bin Salam heard the arrival of the Prophet at Medina, he came to him and said, “I am going to ask you about three things which nobody knows except a prophet: What is the first portent of the Hour? What will be the first meal taken by the people of Paradise? Why does a child resemble its father, and why does it resemble its maternal uncle” Allah’s Apostle said, “Gabriel has just now told me of their answers.” `Abdullah said, “He (i.e. Gabriel), from amongst all the angels, is the enemy of the Jews.” Allah’s Apostle said, “Thefirst portent of the Hour will be a fire that will bring together the people from the east to the west; the first meal of the people of Paradise will be Extra−lobe (caudate lobe) of fish−liver. As for the resemblance of the child to its parents: If a man has sexual intercourse with his wife and gets discharge first, the child will resemble the father, and if the woman gets discharge first, the child will resemble

her.” On that `Abdullah bin Salam said, “I testify that you are the Apostle of Allah.” `Abdullah bin Salam further said, “O Allah’s Apostle! The Jews are liars, and if they should come to know about my conversion to Islam before you ask them (about me), they would tell a lie about me.” The Jews came to Allah’s Apostle and `Abdullah went inside the house. Allah’s Apostle asked (the Jews), “What kind of man is `Abdullah bin Salam amongst you?” They replied, “He is the most learned person amongst us, and the best amongst us, and the son of the best amongst us.” Allah’s Apostle said, “What do you think if he embraces Islam (will you do as he does)?” The Jews said, “May Allah save him from it.” Then `Abdullah bin Salam came out in front of them saying, “I testify that None has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah.” Thereupon they said, “He is the evilest among us, and the son of the evilest amongst us,” and continued talking badly of him.” (Sahih-Bukhari, Vol. 4, Book. 51, No. 546.Bold and Italics emphasize ours)

There is a very important fact to be noticed from the above cited Hadith.

Firstly, when Abdullah bin Salam- The Jew; converted to Islam he testified the prophet hood of Mohammad (peace be upon him) only.

Secondly, in other words, Abdullah bin Salam did not testify the prophet hood of Jesus (peace be upon him). Whereas, in actuality, Abdullah bin Salam being a Jew was more in need of  Shamoun’s cited Hadith to testify prophet hood of Jesus (peace be upon him) which, evidently, he did not do. Moreover, even prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him) did not insist Bin Salam to do so which in turn is a proof that it is not essential to testify Jesus’ (peace be upon him) prophet hood explicitly and officially to become a Muslim. 

Similar Hadith with similar implications is found when Mu`adh bin Jabal (RAA) was sent to Yemen:

“Narrated Ibn `Abbas: Allah’s Apostle said to Mu`adh bin Jabal when he sent him to Yemen. “You will come to the people of Scripture, and when you reach them, invite them to testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and that Muhammad is His Apostle. And if they obey you in that, then tell them that Allah has enjoined on them five prayers to be performed every day and night. And if they obey you in that,then tell them that Allah has enjoined on them Sadaqa (i.e        . rak`at) to be taken from the rich amongst them and given to the poor amongst them. And if they obey you in that, then be cautious! Don’t take their best properties (as Zakat) and be afraid of the curse of an oppressed person as there is no screen between his invocation and Allah.” (Sahih-Bukhari, Vol. 5, Book. 57, No. 634. Bold, Underline and Italics emphasize ours)

It is yet noticeable that Mu’adh bin Jabal was to go to the “people of Scripture”, commonly, the Jews and Christians and Mohammad (peace be upon him) suggested his ambassador to call these Jews and Christians to testify to his prophet hood only; when in actuality and as per Shamoun’s interpretation these Jews and Christians were the ones who were in more need to testify to Jesus’ (peace be upon him) true status. Therefore, yet again conclusively, officially it is not essential to testify Jesus’ (peace be upon him) prophet hood. When a person testifies Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) prophet hood he indirectly testifies for the prophet hood of all the prophets.

We also have the instance of Thumama-a non-Jew or Christian and a staunch anti-Muslim initially, who also embraced simply by observing and testifying to Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) prophet hood:

“Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet sent some cavalry towards Najd and they brought a man from the tribe of Banu Hanifa who was called Thumama bin Uthal. They fastened him to one of the pillars of the Mosque. The Prophet went to him and said, “What have you got, O Thumama?” He replied,” I have got a good thought, O Muhammad! If you should kill me, you would kill a person who has already killed somebody, and if you should set me free, you would do a favor to one who is grateful, and if you want property, then ask me whatever wealth you want.” He was left till the next day when the Prophet said to him, “What have you got, Thumama? He said, “What I told you, i.e. if you set me free, you would do a favor to one who is grateful.” The Prophet left him till the day after, when he said, “What have you got, O Thumama?” He said, “I have got what I told you. “On that the Prophet said, “Release Thumama.” So he (i.e. Thumama) went to a garden of date−palm trees near to the Mosque, took a bath and then entered the Mosque and said, “I testify that None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, and also testify that Muhammad is His Apostle! By Allah, O Muhammad! There was no face on the surface of the earth most disliked by me than yours, but now your face has become the most beloved face to me. By Allah, there was no religion most disliked by me than yours, but now it is the most beloved religion to me. By Allah, there was no town most disliked by me than your town, but now it is the most beloved town to me…” (Sahih-Bukhari, Vol. 5, Book.57, No. 658)

After observing all the traditional conversions of non-Muslims into the fold of Islam we can easily derive that the official Shahada through which a non-Muslim becomes a believer is through the official Islamic Shahada and that does not necessarily include the proclamation of Jesus (peace be upon him) to be Allah’s (SWT) slave, apostle and His word.

Once it has been established that Jesus’ (peace be upon him) testimonial is not essential part of Shahada or required for conversion there remains no question of disparity between prophets.

Muslim Prayer

The tri-theist also raised the question,

“Besides, when is the last time a Muslim confessed in his/her daily prayers that Moses or some other Quranic figure was the messenger of Allah?”

Any neutral reader should have got a satisfying answer to the above objection, if not, then we urge reader to kindly revisit our sub-section of this paper, namely, “No discrimination between His (SWT) Prophets (peace be upon them)”, nevertheless, we would love to serve the evangandist once again.

Since Shamoun brought up the topic of daily Islamic prayers then he should be fully abreast of the fact that Muslims are required to recite Qur’an, to every word of which Muslims heartily accede. And it is more than clearly written in the Qur’an that Noah, Jacob etc were messengers (peace be upon them) of Allah (SWT):

“We have sent thee inspiration, AS WE SENT IT TO Noah and the Messengers after him: we sent inspiration to Abraham, Isma’il, Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes, to Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and solomon, and to David We gave the Psalms.” (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 5:163 Bold, Capital and Italics emphasize ours)

Therefore, a Muslim does testify the messenger ship of other messengers also in their regular prayers.

However, more than that why should we pander to Shamoun’s cheap requirements? Why Shamoun does think that his demand is valid? It is because no Muslim, lay or erudite, who proclaims that We make no distinction between any of His messengers” (Qur’an 2:285) has ever incepted this evil thought in his mind that Mohammad (peace be upon him) is a step ahead in the race just because his name is proclaimed in the prayers even after witnessing Qur’anic verses (a).which has praised Jesus (peace be upon him) more than Mohammad (peace be upon him),

“Behold! the angels said: “O Mary! Allah giveth thee glad tidings of a Word from Him: his name will be Christ Jesus, the son of Mary, held in honour in this world and the Hereafter and of (the company of) those nearest to Allah;”, (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 3:45. Bold and Italics emphasize ours)

(b). When Qur’anic verses have praised Mary (may Allah (SWT) be pleased with her) without even giving any air to Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) mother:

“Behold! the angels said: “O Mary! Allah hath chosen thee and purified thee- chosen thee above the women of all nations., (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 3:42. Bold and Italics emphasize ours)

Notice the high preponderance of the statement that Mary (May Allah be pleased with her) the mother of Jesus (peace be upon him) was chosen above the women of ALL NATIONS including the nation of the Arabs to which Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) mother belonged.

(c). Allah (SWT) did not give the prerogative of speaking in childhood, giving life to dead men and creating beings to Mohammad (peace be upon him) but Allah (SWT) very “(un)discriminatingly” gave such miraculous miracles to one who “was/is nearest to Him”,

“Then will Allah say: “O Jesus the son of Mary! Recount My favour to thee and to thy mother. Behold! I strengthened thee with the holy spirit, so that thou didst speak to the people in childhood and in maturity. Behold! I taught thee the Book and Wisdom, the Law and the Gospel and behold! thou makest out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by My leave, and thou breathest into it and it becometh a bird by My leave, and thou healest those born blind, and the lepers, by My leave. And behold! thou bringest forth the dead by My leave. And behold! I did restrain the Children of Israel from (violence to) thee when thou didst show them the clear Signs, and the unbelievers among them said: ‘This is nothing but evident magic.’, (Interpretations of the meanings of the Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, 5:110. Bold and Italics emphasize ours)

Even after the above speciously discriminating proofs which ‘seemingly’ elevates Jesus (peace be upon him) way above Mohammad (peace be upon him) Muslims do not complain, unlike Shamoun, as to why their God did such an injustice in their own Holy Book against their very beloved prophet. The fact of the matter is that each and every prophet has his own unique and special position conferred by Allah (SWT) which is enjoyed by him as and when needed or required under the supervision of Allah (SWT).

Finally we would like to quote another Hadith where let alone Allah (SWT) or Muslims – Mohammad (peace be upon him) himself discriminated Jesus (peace be upon him) from rest of the prophets:

“Narrated By Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari : Allah’s Apostle said, “If a person teaches his slave girl good manners properly, educates her properly, and then manumits and marries her, he will get a double reward. And if a man believes in Jesus and then believes in me, he will get a double reward. And if a slave fears his Lord (i.e. Allah) and obeys his masters, he too will get a double reward.” (Sahih-Bukhari, Vol.4, Book. 55, No. 655)

Mark that a person who believes in Jesus (peace be upon him) and then believes in Mohammad (peace be upon him) would be rewarded twice as much. We are in doubt whether such privilege has been offered to the status of any other prophet other than Jesus (peace  be upon him) given the fact that Muslims have to believe in all previous prophets including Jesus (peace be upon him).

Actually such argument, as described above, is not written to serve any sort of counter discrimination elevating Jesus (peace be upon him) above others (there by settling the case). Nevertheless, they but serve that which Shamoun interprets as “discrimination” which actually is his misinterpretation or else Shamoun should provide us a response.

Since we are into the realm of Muslim daily prayers then we would like to take this opportunity to clarify another doubt about the so called association of Mohammad (peace be upon him) with Allah (SWT) just because Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) name is taken in prayers.

It is important for Shamoun to note that when we even pray for Mohammad (peace be upon him) in our daily prayer. We seek mercy and blessings for Mohammad (peace be upon him) while mentioning his name in prayers:

            “The Book of Prayers (Kitab Al-Salat)

Muslim :: Book 4 : Hadith 804

Ibn Abi Laila reported: Ka’b b. ‘Ujra met me and said: Should I not offer you a present (and added): The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) came to us and we said: We have learnt how to invoke peace upon you; (kindly tell us) how we should bless you. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Say:” O Allah: bless Muhammad and his family as Thou didst bless the family of Ibrahim. Verily Thou art Praiseworthy and Glorious, O Allah.” (Bold and Italics emphasize ours)

And,
“Bukhari :: Book 4 :: Volume 55 :: Hadith 589

Narrated Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Laila:

Ka’b bin Ujrah met me and said, “Shall I not give you a present I got from the Prophet?” ‘Abdur-Rahman said, “Yes, give it to me.” I said, “We asked Allah’s Apostle saying, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! How should one (ask Allah to) send blessings on you, the members of the family, for Allah has taught us how to salute you (in the prayer)?’ He said, ‘Say: O Allah! Send Your Mercy on Muhammad and on the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your Mercy on Abraham and on the family of Abraham, for You are the Most Praise-worthy, the Most Glorious. O Allah! Send Your Blessings on Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as You sent your Blessings on Abraham and on the family of Abraham, for You are the Most Praise-worthy, the Most Glorious.'” (Bold and Italics emphasize ours)

The above prayer which is prayed in the daily prayer, at least five times a day, is commonly called as “Darood”. The point to be noted here is that if Muslims mistakenly deify Mohammad (peace be upon him) by mentioning Mohammad (peace be upon him) in their prayer then why and how are they seeking mercy and blessings for their deified candidate. This proves that Muslims do not deify Mohammad (peace be upon him) even after his referral in the prayers.

Moreover, the level of mercy and blessing vouchsafed is comparable to a human level, that is, mercy and blessing as was bestowed on Abraham (peace be upon him). The immediate question to be asked is why should a candidate who is, as per Shamoun, elevated so high (by the mention of his name) to be equal with Allah (SWT) be brought back to Abraham’s (peace be upon him) level by seeking mercy and blessings (in the prayers) for him as the mercy and blessings was bestowed on Abraham (peace be upon him).

This arguments proves that Muslims do not deify Mohammad (peace be upon him) even after his referral in the prayers.

Sly Evangandist

 In the following passages readers would soon realize how deceptive Shamoun’s polemics are. Here we would expose Shamoun for his twist and potty play with words and their interpretations.

The tri-theist tried to enlighten Muslims!

“Fourth, it requires Muslims to call on or mention (Bold emphasize ours) someone other than Allah in their daily prayers. Not only are Muslims required to make this confession of faith in their ritual prayers they must also mention and greet Muhammad in their daily acts of worship:

Narrated Shaqiq bin Salama:
‘Abdullah said, “Whenever we prayed behind the Prophet we used to recite (in sitting) ‘Peace be on Gabriel, Michael, peace be on so and so. Once Allah’s Apostle looked back at us and said, ‘Allah Himself is As-Salam (Peace), and if anyone of you prays then he should say, At-Tahiyatu lil-lahi wassalawatu wat-taiyibatu. As-Salamu ‘ALAIKA aiyuha-n-Nabiyu wa rahmatu-l-lahi wa barakatuhu. As-Salam alaina wa ala ibadil-lah is-salihin. (All the compliments, prayers and good things are due to Allah: peace be on YOU, O Prophet and Allah’s mercy and blessings be on you. Peace be on us and on the true pious slaves of Allah). (If you say that, it will be for all the slaves in the heaven and the earth). Ash-hadu an la-ilaha illa-l-lahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa Rasuluhu. (I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and I also testify that Muhammad is His slave and His Apostle).” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 12, Number 794)

Ibn ‘Abbas reported: The Messenger of Allah used to teach us tashahhud just as he used to teach us a Sura of the Qur’an, and he would say: All services rendered by words, acts of worship, and all good things are due to Allah. Peace be upon YOU, O Prophet, and Allah’s mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and upon Allah’s upright servants. I testify that there is no god but Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. In the narration of Ibn Rumb (the words are): “As he would teach us the Qur’an.” (Sahih Muslim, Book 004, Number 0798)

However, the Quran warns against calling on anyone besides Allah, especially one who is dead, since Muslims are required to invoke the one who never dies but is ever-living:

And the mosques are for Allah (Alone), so invoke not anyone along with Allah. S. 72:18 Hilali-Khan”

Shamoun very dexterously and surreptitiously played the trick in the very first sentence when he wrote that Muslims are required “to call on or mention” Mohammad (peace be upon him).

Firstly, we would check Shamoun here to enquire that in which Islamic Scripture he found that Muslims are required to “CALL ON” anybody other than Allah (SWT). In which Islamic resource Muslims have been instructed to seek Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) help as they would seek from Allah (SWT). In which source did he found Muslims to “call on” Mohammad (peace be upon him) when in problem as Christians “call on” Jesus (peace be upon him) when in despair. No wonder, Shamoun knew that there is no such Islamic literature available supporting is claim and therefore, he had to camouflage his attack under the aegis of another clause, namely, OR MENTION”.

Secondly, to MENTION” somebody other than Allah (SWT) (in prayers) is totally different from CALLING ON” somebody other than Allah (SWT) and the readers must realize firstly, the difference between the “mentioning and calling” and secondly, Shamoun’s trickery.

The implications of “calling on” somebody other than Allah (SWT), let alone, Mohammad (peace be upon him) would have been different and very serious from “mentioning” but that is not the case to be or we challenge Shamoun to put up an Islamic source proving his case.

Let alone, Mohammad (peace be upon him) we also “mention” Jesus (peace be upon him), Mary (May Allah (SWT) be pleased with her), John (peace be upon him), Zakariya (peace be upon him) and entire host of Jesus (peace be upon him) family in our daily prayers. We expect Shamoun to attack Islam for the “mention” of above mentioned personalities in his next installment.           

The second part of Shamoun’s “attack” was, at best, childish; specifically,

“Not only are Muslims required to make this confession of faith in their ritual prayers they must also mention and greet Muhammad in their daily acts of worship:…”

 Before we proceed with our response we must re-iterate (for Shamoun) that Shamoun was attacking for Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) deification, association, partnership with Allah (SWT); God forbid.

As for the first sub-part that Muslims are required to make the confession of faith in prayers then there is still no problem because Muslims would still testify – quoting Shamoun,

“Ash-hadu an la-ilaha illa-l-lahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa Rasuluhu. (I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and I also testify that Muhammad is His slave and His Apostle).” (Capital and Underline emphasize ours)

Readers should realize that how come Shamoun attacked and reasoned a “Slave” to be equaled, partnered or associated to the extent of deification with his Master?

The second sub-part of Shamoun’s attack was more childish and absolute gibberish, namely,

            “…they must also mention and greet Muhammad in their daily acts of worship:

Narrated Shaqiq bin Salama:
‘Abdullah said, “Whenever we prayed behind the Prophet we used to recite (in sitting) ‘Peace be on Gabriel, Michael, peace be on so and so. Once Allah’s Apostle looked back at us and said, ‘Allah Himself is As-Salam (Peace), and if anyone of you prays then he should say, At-Tahiyatu lil-lahi wassalawatu wat-taiyibatu. As-Salamu ‘ALAIKA aiyuha-n-Nabiyu wa rahmatu-l-lahi wa barakatuhu. As-Salam alaina wa ala ibadil-lah is-salihin. (All the compliments, prayers and good things are due to Allah: peace be on YOU, O Prophet and Allah’s mercy and blessings be on you. Peace be on us and on the true pious slaves of Allah). (If you say that, it will be for all the slaves in the heaven and the earth).

Firstly, Shamoun should explain us how greeting Mohammad (peace be upon him) equals, deifies, associates or partners Mohammad (peace be upon him) with Allah (SWT). Suppose, we greet somebody then is s/he deified alongside Allah (SWT), not so, at least in Islam!

Secondly, we greet our parents on daily basis besides greeting other prophets besides Mohammad (peace be upon him). Is Shamoun going to argue that even they are also deified? Re-visit this paper for plethora of such examples.

Thirdly, and much to the chagrin of Shamoun, in his own quotation he could not see in his green eyed hatred that we even greet ourselves and on true slaves of Allah (SWT) besides greeting Mohammad (peace be upon him). Now, would Shamoun argue that Muslims deify themselves, as well?

As-Salamu ‘ALAIKA aiyuha-n-Nabiyu wa rahmatu-l-lahi wa barakatuhu. As-Salam alaina wa ala ibadil-lah is-salihin. (All the compliments, prayers and good things are due to Allah: peace be on YOU, O Prophet and Allah’s mercy and blessings be on you. Peace be on us and on the true pious slaves of Allah (Bold, Italics and Underline emphasize ours)). (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 12, Number 794)

“Ibn ‘Abbas reported: The Messenger of Allah used to teach us tashahhud just as he used to teach us a Sura of the Qur’an, and he would say: All services rendered by words, acts of worship, and all good things are due to Allah. Peace be upon YOU, O Prophet, and Allah’s mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and upon Allah’s upright servants (Bold, Italics and Underline emphasize ours). I testify that there is no god but Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. In the narration of Ibn Rumb (the words are): “As he would teach us the Qur’an.” (Sahih Muslim, Book 004, Number 0798)

We have continually witnessed that all the proofs that Shamoun have brought have been used verbatim by us to back fire against his arguments. So was the case in the above adduced Hadith. In fact we did no (re)search in even the above cited two Hadith.

Before we see more examples of back fire from Shamouns own paper we would first revisit one of his other fuss:

“Thus, the shahadah requires Muslims to confess and call on a dead man who cannot hear or benefit anyone!”

We are in total agreement with Shamoun that dead men do not hear neither can they benefit anyone, however, Shamoun should be man enough to simply provide us one example where he found Muslims, through Islamic Scriptures, invoking Mohammad (peace be upon him). Mohammad (peace be upon him) cannot benefit any of us in the divine way as Allah (SWT) could. Taking Shamoun’s help:

“The so-called authentic narrations make it clear that Muhammad was speaking in respect to his eternal fate:

Narrated ‘Um al-‘Ala:
An Ansari woman who gave the pledge of allegiance to the Prophet that the Ansar drew lots concerning the dwelling of the Emigrants. ‘Uthman bin Maz’un was decided to dwell with them (i.e. Um al-‘Ala’s family), ‘Uthman fell ill and I nursed him till he died, and we covered him with his clothes. Then the Prophet came to us and I (addressing the dead body) said, “O Abu As-Sa’ib, may Allah’s Mercy be on you! I bear witness that Allah has honored you.” On that the Prophet said, “How do you know that Allah has honored him?” I replied, “I do not know. May my father and my mother be sacrificed for you, O Allah’s Apostle! But who else is worthy of it (if not ‘Uthman)?” He said, “As to him, by Allah, death has overtaken him, and I hope the best for him. By Allah, though I am the Apostle of Allah, yet I do not know what Allah will do to me,” By Allah, I will never assert the piety of anyone after him. That made me sad, and when I slept I saw in a dream a flowing stream for ‘Uthman bin Maz’un. I went to Allah’s Apostle and told him of it. He remarked, “That symbolizes his (good) deeds.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 58, Number 266)

And:

Narrated Abu Huraira:
When Allah revealed the Verse: “Warn your nearest kinsmen,” Allah’s Apostle got up and said, “O people of Quraish (or said similar words)! Buy (i.e. save) yourselves (from the Hellfire) as I cannot save you from Allah’s Punishment; O Bani Abd Manaf! I cannot save you from Allah’s Punishment, O Safiya, the Aunt of Allah’s Apostle! I cannot save you from Allah’s Punishment; O Fatima bint Muhammad! Ask me anything from my wealth, but I cannot save you from Allah’s Punishment.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 51, Number 16)

What we realize from the above cited Hadith literature is that Mohammad (peace be upon him) was just a guide and a warner, not capable of benefiting or harming anyone as Allah (SWT) could and therefore, cannot, therefore, be invoked for. Now, if Mohammad (peace be upon him) cannot be invoked then how come Shamoun is repeatedly chanting that Muslims invoke or “call on” Mohammad (peace be upon him)? We give Shamoun opportunity to present his case.

As a matter of fact, and very ironically, in an attempt to attack Islamic monotheism, Shamoun presented us with proofs which only fortify and bolster the Islamic Tawheed.

Here is an instance from Shamoun’s paper which would undoubtedly establish that Mohammad (peace be upon him) and Allah (SWT) cannot be associated/partnered even in insanity:

“The Muslim scripture makes it clear that Muhammad, like all other men and the rest of the messengers, must die:

Muhammad is naught but a Messenger; Messengers have passed away before him. Why, if he should die or is slain, will you turn about on your heels? If any man should turn about on his heels, he will not harm God in any way; and God will recompense the thankful. S. 3:144 Arberry

Verily, you (O Muhammad) will die and verily, they (too) will die. S. 39:30 Hilali-Khan” (Bold and Italics emphasize ours)

Contrast it with Allah’s (SWT) quality of eternity:

He is the Living One (Bold and Italics emphasize ours); there is no god but He. So call upon Him, making your religion His sincerely. Praise belongs to God, the Lord of all Being. S. 40:65

And put your trust (O Muhammad) in the Ever Living One Who dies not, and glorify His Praises, and Sufficient is He as the All-Knower of the sins of His slaves; S. 25:58 Hilali-Khan”

Shamouns’s last carp was the worst of the lot.

“Fifth, the shahada also entails confessing a dead man as the messenger of Allah. Notice that in the testimony of faith Muslims do not say that Muhammad WAS Allah’s messenger (Muhammadan kana rasulu ‘llah), but that he IS the messenger of Allah…Yet how can a dead man still be Allah’s messenger when he is in his grave and can neither harm nor benefit anyone?”

The above objection poses serious question on the polemical aptitude of Shamoun because:

Firstly, how does “confessing a dead man as the messenger of Allah” (SWT) associates, equals or partners him with Allah (SWT)? How such a confession does jeopardizes the Shahada.

Secondly, we also confess the messenger ship of other “dead” messenger; Moses, Abraham etc, for instance, Peace be upon them. Shamoun never got time to cogitate about these messengers and their Muslim confession.

As for the second part of Shamoun’s niggle that how can a dead man be still Allah’s (SWT) messenger; then, Mohammad (peace be upon him) is still Allah’s (SWT) messenger because of the following reasons:

Firstly, Mohammad (peace be upon him) is Allah’s (SWT) messenger since he is still alive through his teachings still preserved in the invaluable Hadith and the divine verses of Allah (SWT) which came in the Qur’an through Mohammad (peace be upon him). 

Secondly, on the same corollary, when Muslims confess that Mohammad (peace be upon him) IS Allah’s (SWT) messenger the sense is more metaphorical than literal. It is because Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) messenger ship and jurisdiction (Shariah) is still applicable because he is the final messenger until the last day sets in, unlike other earlier messengers (peace be upon them) whose messenger ship were forfeited once the succeeding messenger came. Therefore, we say, Moses (peace be upon him), for example, WAS the messenger of Allah. However, in the case of Mohammad (peace be upon him) we proclaim that he IS the messenger of Allah. We suggest Shamoun to do a little study of Islam before dabbling into apologetics.

Conclusion

With the observation of antecedent arguments in mind Shamoun does not understand that testifying the messenger ship of Mohammad (peace be upon him) does not tantamount to his testimonial as another deity besides Allah (SWT); there is a difference of chalk and cheese between the two. He also does need to comprehend that there is a difference between mentioning Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) name and invoking his name.

Moreover, all most all the proofs which Shamoun brought was used by us against him which further poses serious doubts on the quality of attack which can be weaved against the Islamic Shahada which in turn establish that The Islamic Shahada is the Only True Shahada.

Recommended Readings:

  1. True Shahada Indeed
  2. True Shahada Indeed: Part 2
  3. True Shahada Indeed: Part 3
  4. Sunni Shahada Rebuttal
  5. Sunni Shahada Rebuttal: Part 2
Advertisements
Post a comment or leave a trackback: Trackback URL.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: