Muhammed’s Marriage To Zaynab: Quran 33:37 [Part 2]

Kaleef K. Karim


1. Introduction
2. The Quranic Evidence on Muhammed’s Marriage To Zaynab
3. The Hadith Evidence On Surah 33:37
4. Earliest scholars on Surah 33:37
5. Conclusion

1. Introduction

“And [remember, O Muhammad], when you said to the one on whom Allah bestowed favor and you bestowed favor, “Keep your wife and fear Allah ,” while you concealed within yourself that which Allah is to disclose. And you feared the people, while Allah has more right that you fear Him. So when Zayd had no longer any need for her, We married her to you in order that there not be upon the believers any discomfort concerning the wives of their adopted sons when they no longer have need of them. And ever is the command of Allah accomplished.” – Quran 33:37


“There is not to be upon the Prophet any discomfort concerning that which Allah has imposed upon him. [This is] the established way of Allah with those [prophets] who have passed on before. And ever is the command of Allah a destiny decreed.” Quran 33:38

Before we analyse the above verses [1] closer let’s reiterate some of the important points we covered in the previous article on Zaynab, Zayd And Muhammed – “Zayd, Zaynab And Muhammed: Fabrications And Lies“:

1. Zaynab and Muhammed (p) were cousins who knew each other since they were kids. They grew up together.

2. Zayd was a former slave, later adopted by Khadijah, and freed by Prophet Muhammed.

3. Although in the society Muhammed (p) lived, someone like Zayd would be called the “son” of Muhammed, the Quran on the hand rebukes and says these are mere artificial social constructs which the people have created and conjured in their own minds for which God did not send any authority for it.

4. When the time was right, the Prophet (p) arranged and (p) married the former slave Zaid to Zaynab.

5. Zaynab, her brother and other family members did not want her to be married to a former slave. The Prophet (p) insisted that they marry each other, to break and put a stop to the backward Jahiliya (pre-Islamic ignorance) culture of marriage being between certain classes only (or skin colour).

6. Zaynab and other family members eventually accepted the marriage as revelations came down.

7. The marriage didn’t last long since there was a lot of arguments and “quarrels” at home. As mentioned in the article, the scholars said that Zaynab used to bring up her lineage and Zayd being a former slave. She used to bring up that she was from a noble family while Zayd was a former slave. These talks and others couldn’t contain Zayd to stay with her any longer.

8. Zayd went to Prophet Muhammed (p) wanting to divorce her due to the problems at home, the Prophet ordered him to stay married to her and to “fear God”. Zayd went back and forth for a while (weeks or months) every-time complaining about his marriage, and every time the Prophet (p) exclaimed and told him to “fear God” and keep his wife. Eventually, it was too much for Zayd and divorce followed.

9. Throughout the time when Zaid and Zaynab had issues at home, the Prophet beforehand received revelation that the marriage would end in divorce. The Prophet (p) was also informed at the same time by God that he would have to marry Zaynab. After the divorce, Muhammed (p) was ordered by God to marry Zaynab, in his heart, he did not want to marry her because she was married to his adopted son. He feared that the people in the society would talk about him. The Almighty God sent down revelation that he should fear Him rather than the people in the society. The marriage went ahead as it was ordered by God Himself, and Muhammed had no say to disobey the command.

10. Prophet Muhammed’s (p) marriage to Zainab was done so to break the taboo in the Arab society that adopted son’s wife are real sons. But God’s responded by saying that these are mere sayings from their mouths. The revelation had a big impact in the society, who was going to break that ancient tradition? It was none other Muhammed, as God commanded him to do.

11. The story in Tabari which mentions that Muhammed (p) looked at Zaynab while she was inside her house, is a fabricated story to degrade the Prophet’s character.

2. The Quranic Evidence on Muhammed’s Marriage To Zaynab

Let’s read the verse again:

“And [remember, O Muhammad], when you said to the one on whom Allah bestowed favor and you bestowed favor, “Keep your wife and fear Allah ,” while YOU CONCEALED WITHIN YOURSELF THAT WHICH ALLAH IS TO DISCLOSE. And you feared the people, while Allah has more right that you fear Him. So when Zayd had no longer any need for her, WE MARRIED HER TO YOU in order that there not be upon the believers any discomfort concerning the wives of their adopted sons when they no longer have need of them. And ever is THE COMMAND OF ALLAH ACCOMPLISHED.” – Quran 33:37

It is said that Prophet was “hiding something in his heart”, this is understood by critics that he had “love” towards Zaynab. Although some later exegesis of the Quran had interpreted it as such [2] [3], this has no historical truth to the incident. This is for several reasons. We have a Quranic verse and several authentic Hadith which state the opposite.

The Quranic verse tells us that the Prophet (p) did not disclose what God had told him, that he would have to marry Zaynab as soon as Zaid divorced her:

“And [remember, O Muhammad], when you said to the one on whom Allah bestowed favor and you bestowed favor, “Keep your wife and fear Allah ,” while YOU CONCEALED WITHIN YOURSELF THAT WHICH ALLAH IS TO DISCLOSE. And you feared the people, while Allah has more right that you fear Him. So when Zayd had no longer any need for her, WE MARRIED HER TO YOU in order that there not be upon the believers any discomfort concerning the wives of their adopted sons when they no longer have need of them. And ever is THE COMMAND OF ALLAH ACCOMPLISHED.” – Quran 33:37

THERE IS NOT TO BE UPON THE PROPHET ANY DISCOMFORT CONCERNING THAT WHICH ALLAH HAS IMPOSED UPON HIM. [This is] the established way of Allah with those [prophets] who have passed on before. And ever is the command of Allah a destiny decreed.” Quran 33:38

We deduce very important information from the above verses:

1. “You concealed within yourself”, the Prophet Muhammed (p) did not reveal the information from God to the people i.e., that God had told him that he will have to marry her after Zaid’s divorce.

2. “Allah is to disclose”, that which was hidden by the Prophet (p) about God telling him that he will eventually marry Zaynab, this will be unveiled by God soon.

3. “We married her to you”, so that which was hidden according to the Quran was the marriage which was revealed by God to Muhammed (p).

4. “The command of Allah accomplished”, that which was commanded to the Prophet (p) got accomplished i.e., God’s plan that Muhammed (p) has to marry Zaynab came to plan.

5. The beginning of Surah 33:38 tells us that the marriage was not initiated or planned by the Prophet, but that this was imposed by God Himself.

We see from the very verse under discussion that it tells us that which the Prophet (p) did not tell people was marriage. So that which God was going to disclose to the people was “marriage”. That God had ordered Muhammed (p) that he had to marry Zaynab at the end (when Zayd divorced Zaynab).

3. The Hadith Evidence On Surah 33:37

The authentic Hadith tell us that the Prophet (p) was hiding from Zayd and the public that God had told him that he would have to eventually marry Zaynab. He did not disclose this information until after Zayd eventually divorced Zaynab. This fact is reported to us in several authentic Hadith by Aisha, one of Prophet Muhammed’s own wife’s.

Sahih al-Bukhari:

“Narrated Anas: Zaid bin Haritha came to the Prophet complaining about his wife. The Prophet kept on saying (to him), “Be afraid of Allah and keep your wife.” Aisha said, “IF ALLAH’S MESSENGER WERE TO CONCEAL ANYTHING (OF THE QUR’AN HE WOULD HAVE CONCEALED THIS VERSE.” Zainab used to boast before the wives of the Prophet and used to say, “You were given in marriage by your families, while I WAS MARRIED (TO THE PROPHET) BY ALLAH FROM OVER SEVEN HEAVENS.” And Thabit recited, “The Verse:– ‘But (O Muhammad) you did hide in your heart that which Allah was about to make manifest, you did fear the people,’ (33.37) was revealed in connection with Zainab and Zaid bin Haritha.” (Sahih al-Bukhari volume 9, Book 93, Hadith 516 (Eng. Ed.))


Sahih Muslim:

“Dawud reported on the same authorities the hadith as narrated above by Ibn ‘Uliyya and added: She (‘A’isha) said: IF MUHAMMAD WERE TO CONCEAL ANYTHING WHICH WAS SENT TO HIM, HE WOULD HAVE CERTAINLY CONCEALED THIS VERSE:” And when thou saidst to him on whom Allah had conferred favour and thou too had conferred favour: Keep thy wife to thyself and fear Allah, and thou wast concealing in thy heart that which Allah was going to disclose, and thou wast fearing men while Allah has a better right that thou shouldst fear Him.” (Sahih Muslim Book 1, Hadith 338 (Eng. Ed.))

Hence, what the Prophet (p) kept hidden was the information God has disclosed to him, that he had to marry Zaynab as soon as the divorce proceeded. The Prophet (p) believed, maybe if he insisted on Zayd staying married to Zaynab, then he would not need to marry Zaynab and the backlash from the society wouldn’t come to haunt him.

4. Earliest scholars on Surah 33:37

The companions of Prophet Muhammed and their followers (Tabi’een) understood the verse to mean that the Prophet (p) did not disclose the information about God telling Muhammed (p) that he would marry Zaynab. This is why whenever Zayd came to divorce Zaynab, the Prophet (p) insisted on him to stay married and “Fear God”.

Hadith scholar Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi:

“65 From here begin the verses which were sent down in connection with the Holy Prophet’s marriage with Hadrat Zainab.
66 Ibn ‘Abbas, Qatadah, ‘Ikrimah and Muqatil bin Hayyan say that this verse was sent down at the time when the Holy Prophet proposed Hadrat Zainab for Hadrat Zaid, and Zainab and her relatives did not agree. According to Ibn ‘Abbas, when the Holy Prophet made the proposal, Hadrat Zainab said, “I am better than him in lineage.” Ibn Sa’d says that she also said, “I do not approve him for myself. I am a Quraishite by birth. “The same sort of disapproval was expressed by her brother, ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh, because Hadrat Zaid was a freed slave of the Holy Prophet and Hadrat Zainab was the daughter of his paternal aunt, Umaimah bint ‘Abdul Muttalib. They did not like the Holy Prophet to propose a girl of a noble Quraishite family, who was none other than his own first cousin, for his freed slave. At this, this verse was sent down and on hearing it Hadrat Zainab and all her relatives yielded to the proposal at once. Then the Holy Prophet married them, paid ten diners and 60 dirhams from his own pocket as dower on behalf of Zaid, provided the bridal dress and sent some articles of food for domestic use.
Though this verse was sent down on g special occasion, the injunction given in it is the cardinal principle of the constitutional law of Islam, and it applies to the entire Islamic system of life. According to it no Muslim individual or nation, or institution, or court or parliament or state, is entitled to use its own freedom of opinion in a matter in which Allah and His Prophet have already given a decision. To be a Muslim means to surrender one’s freedom of opinion and action before Allah and His Messenger. It would be a contradiction in terms if a person or a nation claimed to be Muslim and then reserved for itself the freedom of choice and action. No sensible person can think of combining the two contradictory attitudes together. The one who desires to remain a Muslim will inevitably have to bow down to the Command of Allah and His Prophet, and the one who is not inclined to bow will have to admit that he is not a Muslim. If he does not admit he will be regarded as a hypocrite both by God and by the people even though he might proclaim to be a Muslim at the top of his voice.
67 The discourse from here to verse 48 was sent down after the Holy Prophet had married Hadrat Zainab, and the hypocrites, the Jews and the mushriks had started a relentless propaganda campaign against him. While studying these verses one should bear in mind the fact that this Divine discourse was not meant for the instruction of the enemies who were engaged. in a willful campaign of vilification and slander and falsehood to defame the Holy Prophet intentionally and to satisfy their rancor. But its real object was to protect the Muslims against the influence of their campaign and to safeguard them against doubts and suspicions. Evidently, the Word of Allah could not satisfy the unbelievers. It could give peace of mind only to those who knew and believed it to be Allah’s Word. There was a danger that those righteous people also might be confused and influenced by the objections that were being raised by their enemies. Therefore, on the one hand, Allah removed all possible doubts from their minds, and on the other, taught the Muslims as well as the Holy Prophet himself how they should conduct themselves under the circumstances.
68 It refers to Hadrat Zaid as has been mentioned clearly below. In order to understand how Allah had favored him and how the Holy Prophet, it is necessary here to relate his story briefly. He was the son of Harithah bin Shurahbil, a person of the Kalb tribe, and his mother, Su’da bint Tha’labah, was from the Bani Ma’n, a branch of the Tay tribe. When he was eight years old, she took him along to her parents. There the people of Bani Qain bin Jasr raided their camp, plundered their good: and took some men prisoners, Hadrat Zaid included. Then they sold Zaid at the fair of ‘Ukiiz near Ta’if. His buyer was Hakim bin Hizam, a nephew of Hadrat Khadijah. Hakim brought him to Makkah and presented him to his paternal aunt. When the Holy Prophet married Hadrat Khadijah he found Zaid in her service and was so impressed by his good manners and conduct that he asked him of her. Thus, this fortunate boy entered the service of the best of men, whom Allah, after a few years, was going to appoint a Prophet. Hadrat Zaid at that time was 15 years old. Afterwards when his father and uncle came to know that their child was at Makkah, they came to the Holy Prophet and requested him to return him in exchange for ransom. The Holy Prophet said, “I shall call the boy and leave it to him whether he would like to go with you or stay with me. If he chose to go, I would take no ransom but would Iet Trim go with you. However, if he chose to stay back, I am not the one who would turn out a person who would like to stay with me.” They said, “This is perfectly right and just. Please ask the boy.” The Holy Prophet called Zaid and asked him, Do you know these two gentlemen?” He said, “Yes sir, this is my father and this my uncle.” The Holy Prophet then said, “Well, you know them as well as me. You have the choice to go with them, or stay with me if you so desire. ” He said, “I have no wish to leave you and go with anyone else. ” His father and uncle said, I ‘Zaid, will you prefer slavery to freedom, and choose to stay with others in preference to your parents and family?” He replied, “After what I have seen of this person I cannot now prefer anything else of the world to him.” Hearing the reply the father and uncle of Zaid were reconciled to his remaining with the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet set Zaid free immediately and proclaimed before a gathering of the Quraish in the Ka’bah, “Bear witness that hence-forth Zaid is my son: he will receive inheritance from me and I from him.” Thereafter, he began to be called Zaid bin Muhammad by the people. All this happened before the Holy Prophet’s advent as a Prophet. Then, when he was blessed with Prophethood by Allah, there were four persons who accepted his claim to it without a moment’s hesitation as soon as they heard of it from him. They were Hadrat Khadijah, Hadrat Zaid, Hadrat ‘AIi and Hadrat Abu Bakr. Hadrat Zaid was 30 years old then, and had already spent 15 years in the Holy Prophet’s service. In the fourth year after Hijrah, the Holy Prophet marred him to his first cousin Hadrat Zainab, paid her dower on his behalf and provided them with necessary articles for setting up the house.
This is to what Allah has alluded in the verse, saying: “Whom Allah as well as you had favored. “
69 These words were said when the relations between Hadrat Zaid and Hadrat Zainab had become very strained, and after making repeated complaints Hadrat Zaid had finally told the Holy Prophet that he intended to divorce her. Although Hadrat Zainab had accepted to be married to him in obedience to Allah and His Messenger’s command, she could not overcome her feeling that Zaid was a freed slave, who had been brought up by her own family, and she in spite of being the daughter of a noble Arab family, had been wedded to him. Due to this feeling she could never regard Hadrat Zaid as her equal in matrimonial lift, and this caused more and more bitterness between them. Thus after a little more than a year the marriage ended in divorce.
70 Some people have misconstrued this sentence to mean this: The Holy Prophet desired to marry Hadrat Zainab and wanted that Zaid should divorce her. But when Zaid came to the Holy Prophet and said that he wanted to divorce his wife, the Holy Prophet stopped him from this only half-heartedly. At this Allaln said: ‘You were keeping hidden in your heart that which Allah intended to reveal. The real meaning, however, is contrary to this. If this the sentence is read with verses 1, 2, 3 and 7 of this Surah, one can clearly see that in the very days when bitterness was increasing between Hadrat Zaid and his wife, Allah had hinted to His Prophet that when Zaid had divorced his wife, he would have to marry the divorced lady. But since the Holy Prophet knew what it meant to marry the divorced wife of the adopted son in the contemporary Arab society, and that too at a time when apart from a handful of the Muslims the entire country had become jealous of him, he was hesitant to take any step in that direction. That is why when Hadrat Zaid expressed his intention to divorce his wife, the Holy Prophet said to him, `Fear Allah and do not divorce your wife.” What he meant by this was that Zaid should not divorce his wife so that he was saved from facing the trial, otherwise in case the divorce was pronounced he would have to comply with the command, and thus provoke a severe storm of criticism and vilification against himself. But when the Holy Prophet deliberately forbade Zaid to divorce his wife so that he himself might be saved from what he feared would cause him defamation, Allah found this below the high position that He wanted His Prophet to enjoy, whereas Allah intended to effect a great reform through this marriage of the Prophet. The words ‘You were fearing the people, whereas Allah has a greater right that you should fear Him,” clearly point to the same theme.
THE SAME EXPLANATION OF THIS VERSE HAS BEEN GIVEN BY IMAM ZAIN-UL-‘ABEDIN HADRAT ‘AII BIN HUSAIN(may Allah be pleased with him). HE SAYS, ALLAH HAD INDICATED TO HIS PROPHET THAT ZAINAB WOULD BE INCLUDED AMONG HIS WIVES. But when Zaid complained about her to him, the Holy Prophet admonished him to fear Allah and keep his wife. At this Allah said to His Prophet, ‘I had informed you that I would marry you to Zainab. But when you were forbidding Zaid to divorce his wife, you were hiding that which Allah was going to reveal’.” (Ibn Jarir, Ibn Kathir on the authority of Ibn Abi Hatim).
ALLAMA ALUSI ALSO IN HIS RUH AL-MA ANI HAS GIVEN THE SAME MEANING OF IT. He says, ‘This is an expression of displeasure on abandoning the better course, which was that the Holy Prophet should have kept quiet, or should have told Zaid to do as he liked. The displeasure amounted to this: ‘Why did you tell Zaid to keep his wife, whereas I had informed you beforehand that Zainab would be included among your wives?”
71 That is, Zaid divorced his wife and her waiting-period came to an end. The words “fulfilled his desire of her” by themselves give the meaning that Zaid was left with no desire attached to her. And this state of affairs does not appear on mere pronouncement of the divorce, because even during the waiting period the husband can take his wife back if he has any interest in her; and the husband also has this desire left with the divorced wife that it should become known whether she is pregnant or not. Therefore, the desire of her former husband with the divorced wife comes to an end only on the expiry of the waiting period.
73 These words clearly indicate that Allah accomplished this social reform through the Holy Prophet to effect a great change which could not be enforced” by any other means. There was no way to put an end to the wrong customs that had become prevalent in Arabia in respect of the adopted relations but that Allah’s Messenger himself should take initiative to abolish them. Therefore, Allah arranged this marriage not for the sake of adding a wife to the Holy Prophet’s household but for enforcing an important social change.
74 These words show that for the other Muslims such a marriage is just permissible BUT FOR THE HOLY PROPHET IT WAS A DUTY WHICH ALLAH HAD IMPOSED ON HIM.” (Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi – Tafhim al-Qur’an – The Meaning of the Qur’an – on chapter 33:36-38 – online source)


Maulana Mufti Mohammad Shafi:

“The details of this event appearing above all been taken from Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Qurtubi and Ruh il-Ma’ani. As for the particular tafsir of the verse: … (YOU WERE CONCEALING IN YOUR HEART WHAT ALLAH WAS GOING TO REVEAL – 37) THAT IS, ‘the thing that he kept to himself was the intention that should Zayd give the divorce, HE WOULD MARRY HER IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE DIVINE DECREE’ – this tafsir was reported by Tirmidhi, Ibn Abi Hatim and other Hadith experts from a narration of Sayyidna Ali Ibn Husain Zain ul-Abidin. Its words are as follows:

Allah Ta’ala had informed the Holy Prophet through revelation that Zainab is going to be divorced by Zayd and after that she was to be married to him – Ruh ul-Ma’ani from Tirmidhi.

And Ibn Kathir has reported the following words with reference to Ibn Abi Hatim:

The majority of commentators – Zuhri, Bakr Ibn al-Ala, al-Qushairi and Qadi Abu Bakr Ibn al-Arabi – have adopted this very tafsir, that is, the mention of the thing he was keeping to himself was but this intention of MARRIAGE UNDER DIVINE REVELATION. …

Then the words of the Qur’an themselves lend support to this very tafsir mentioned above on the authority of Zayyidna Zain ul-Abidin because, in THIS VERSE, ALLAH TA’ALA HAS HIMSELF SAID VERY CLEARLY THAT THE THING HIDDEN IN THE HEART WAS WHAT ALLAH TA’ALA IS GOING TO DISCLOSE – AND THE THING THAT ALLAH TA’ALA DISCLOSED IN THE NEXT VERSE (37) IS MARRIAGE with Sayyidah Zainab as said in: … (We gave her into your marriage – 37) (Ruh ul-Ma’ani) (Maarif ul Quran: Quran Translation and Commentary [Translation by Prof. Muhammad Hasan Askari & Prof. Muhammad Shamim Revised by Justice Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani] by Maulana Mufti Mohammad Shafi page 163 – 164)


5. Conclusion:

The claim that Prophet concealed “love” is a baseless claim which has no historical truth to the incident. The Quranic verse and the Hadith quoted, both tell us that which was concealed was which God had told Muhammed (p) about, that he would marry Zaynab, a Divine Decree imposed on him. The clear evidence shown from the Quran, Hadith, and the earliest exegesis that the thing “concealed/hidden” was the marriage that was imposed on the Prophet (p) by God.

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[1] Surah 33:37 was revealed in connection with Zaynab. Jami at-Tirmidhi:
“Narrated Anas: “When this Ayah was revealed: ‘But you did hide in yourself that which Allah will make manifest… (33:37)’ about Zainab bint Jahsh, Zaid had come to the Prophet complaining, and he wanted to divorce her, so he consulted with the Prophet. The Prophet said: ‘Keep your wife to yourself, and have Taqwa of Allah (33:37).’” (Jami at-Tirmidhi volume 5, Book 44, Hadith 3212 (Sahih Darussalam))
[2] The claim that the Prophet Muhammed had “love” towards Zaynab, these stories are not authentic and such is rejected as classical scholar Ibn Kathir has noted. Maulana Mufti Mohammad Shafi:
“Counter to this there are narrations in which the words, ‘and your were concealing in your heart’ have been explained as love for Zainab. About this tafsir, Ibn Kathir has said, ‘We did not like to mention these narrations as NONE OF THESE IS SOUND” (Maarif ul Quran: Quran Translation and Commentary [Translation by Prof. Muhammad Hasan Askari & Prof. Muhammad Shamim Revised by Justice Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani] by Maulana Mufti Mohammad Shafi page 164)
[3] It does not “behove” the character of Prophet Muhammed (p) to claim what missionaries have said, it also contradicts the Quran and Hadith evidence on this incident. Shaykh Ashiq Ilahi Madni:
“Allah addresses the Holy Prophet further when He says, ‘You concealed in your heart what Allah was to disclose.’ Certain commentators (including the author of ‘Jalalain’) write that the matter which the Holy Prophet concealed in his heart was his desire to marry Sayyidah Zainab when Sayyidina Zaid divorced her. However, this interpretation does not behove the status of the Holy Prophet.
The correct interpretation is that Allah had already informed the Holy Prophet that Sayyidina Zaid would divorce her, after which the Holy Prophet was to marry her. The Holy Prophet did not want to disclose this matter and still advised Sayyidina Zaid to keep her in his marriage. As a result of this, Allah mildly chided the Holy Prophet in the verse.” (Illuminating Discourses on the Noble Quran – Tafseer Anwarul Bayan – by Shaykh Ashiq Ilahi Madni (r.a), volume 4, page 241)


Related Articles:

Safiyyah, Huyayy, Kinana And Khaybar Affair

Prophet Muhammed’s Wife Mariyah (Maria) (Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, and Part 4)

Muhammed, Jauniyya The “Prepubescent Girl”? (Part 1, And Part 2)

What Happened To The Captive Women In Awtas Incident?


surah 3337

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